The purpose of this study is to justify the result of the modified Stand–Up test (MSUT) in Little League baseball players and to clarify the association with sports related disorders in the elbow.
A total of 245 (240 boys and 5 girls) Little League baseball players aged 9 to 12 underwent physical examination, elbow ultrasonography and questionnaires during a routine medical checkup. In addition, the MSUT, based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA)'s original Stand–Up test to evaluate the risk of Locomotive syndrome, was performed.
Seventeen osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of capitellum and 4 medial epicondylar fragmentation (MEF) cases were diagnosed with ultrasonography in 242 players. Based on the MSUT, five boys could not stand up from 40 cm platform with the single leg stance, two of whom complained of current elbow pain, three of whom diagnosed with a positive finding with ultrasonography. Odds ratio (95% confidence limits) of risk factors for failing to the 40 cm-MSUT with the single leg stance were: incidence of current elbow pain 5.7 (0.9–35.5); OCD (Grade 1b and 2) 8.2 (0.8–83); and MEF 19.5 (1.7–230).
Two percent of Little League baseball players were unable to stand up from a 40 cm high platform/stool with the single leg stance by the MSUT and it was associated with an increase in MEF or OCD diagnosis by ultrasonography and presence of elbow pain. These results suggest that players who failed to the 40 cm-MSUT with the single leg stance are at risk of elbow disorders. Also, these results are consistent with previous research on throwing injuries that have associated poor control in the legs or trunk with pain and injury involving the upper extremities. MSUT, a relatively simple procedure, may be a helpful adjunct for screening to estimate readiness for resuming general physical activity in Little League baseball players.
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Published online: December 13, 2021
Accepted: November 24, 2021
Received in revised form: November 8, 2021
Received: October 9, 2020
© 2021 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.