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Risk factors for contralateral total knee arthroplasty after unilateral total knee arthroplasty

Published:October 05, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2022.09.010

      Abstract

      Background

      Little attention has been focused on risk factors for undergoing bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after primary unilateral TKA among patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the differences in characteristics between groups with and without additional TKA for the contralateral knee among patients with knee OA who underwent primary unilateral TKA.

      Methods

      Seventy-six patients who underwent primary unilateral TKA were included in this study. We defined patients who underwent additional TKA for the contralateral knee within one year of the primary TKA as a bilateral TKA group, and patients who did not undergo bilateral TKA as a unilateral TKA group. Femorotibial angle (FTA), percentage of mechanical axis (%MA), Kellgren–Lawrence (KL) grade, range of motion, Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, 10 m-walking time, C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum albumin levels were selected as independent variables including covariates of age, sex, and body mass index for predicting bilateral TKA. We compared differences in variables between the two groups using the t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test and general linear models. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model was also used to determine which variables correlated with bailateral TKA.

      Results

      In pairwise comparisons, the KL grade, FTA, %MA, JOA score, and knee flexion angle in the contralateral knee were significantly worse in the bilateral TKA group than in the unilateral TKA group after controlling for covariates (P < 0.01, respectively). A stepwise logistic regression revealed that significant contributors to undergoing the contralateral TKA were FTA (OR = 1.47, P < 0.001) and knee flexion angle (OR = 0.96, P = 0.022) of the contralateral knee.

      Conclusions

      Severe varus deformity and limitations of flexion in the contralateral knee were found to be risk factors for undergoing additional TKA within one year of primary unilateral TKA among patients with knee OA.

      Keywords

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