How much force is acting on the shoulder joint to create a Hill-Sachs Lesion or reverse Hill-Sachs Lesion?

Published:October 21, 2022DOI:



      It has not been clarified yet how much force is acting on the shoulder joint to create Hill-Sachs/reverse Hill-Sachs lesions which are commonly observed in patients with anterior or posterior shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of force to create these bony lesions using cadaveric shoulders.


      Fourteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were used. Compression tests were performed using the universal testing machine. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, the posterior humeral head (the bare area and articular cartilage) was first compressed against the anterior glenoid rim to simulate a Hill-Sachs lesion, followed by the anterior humeral head being compressed against the posterior glenoid rim. In group B, the same procedure was repeated in the reverse order. X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) was also performed.


      The maximum compression force to create a Hill-Sachs lesion was 771 ± 214 N (mean ± SD) on the articular cartilage of the posterior humeral head, which was significantly greater than the force of 447 ± 215 N to create it on the bare area (P = 0.0086). Regarding the reverse Hill-Sachs lesions, the maximum compression force was 840 ± 198 N when it was created on the articular cartilage of the anterior humeral head, which was significantly greater than the force of 471 ± 100 N when it was created at the footprint of the subscapularis tendon (P = 0.0238). MicroCT showed multiple breakage of the trabecular bone.


      A force to create a Hill-Sachs lesion or a reverse Hill-Sachs lesion was significantly greater when it was created on the humeral articular cartilage than at the non-cartilage area. Also, the force to create a reverse Hill-Sachs lesion was significantly greater than the one to create a Hill-Sachs lesion.


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