Risk factors for celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery stenosis in preoperative lumbar and thoracolumbar spinal surgery patients

Published:November 09, 2022DOI:



      Ischemic necrosis of the abdominal organs caused by compression of the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) after correction surgery has been recognized as acute celiac artery compression syndrome (ACACS). Here, using contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) images, we sought to determine the prevalence and degree of CA and SMA stenosis in spinal patients preoperatively, and the risk factors associated with the stenosis.


      We retrospectively examined contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 90 patients with preoperative lumbar degenerative disease, lumbar burst fracture, or adult spinal deformity. The trunks of the CA and SMA were detected using three-dimensional reconstructed CT. To investigate their degree of stenosis, we determined the ratio of the narrowest diameter of the stenotic segment to the distal normal lumen's diameter. Patients with a degree of stenosis ≥35% were defined as being in the group with stenosis and the remainder as in the group without. To determine the risk factors for stenosis of these arteries, the relationship between the stenosis and CA and SMA calcification or the median arcuate ligament (MAL) crossing the proximal portion of the celiac axis (MAL overlap) was also investigated.


      The average degree of stenosis of the CA trunk was 12.1% ± 13.9% and that for the SMA trunk was 8.5% ± 8.8%. There were 8 patients (8.9%) in the group with CA stenosis and 2 patients (2.2%) in the group with SMA stenosis. The number of patients in the group with CA stenosis was significantly greater than the number with MAL overlap or CA calcification (P < 0.05).


      The prevalence of CA or SMA stenosis was 11.2% of preoperative patients due to undergo thoracolumbar fusion surgery. Calcifications of the CA trunk and MAL overlap are risk factors for CA stenosis.


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