Cross-sectional studies on diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis have focused on its incidence and related factors. However, the long-term changes caused by the disease remain unclear. This longitudinal cohort study aimed to elucidate the progression of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and its effects on physical function, health-related quality of life, and spinal alignment.
We recruited 255 older adults (87 men and 168 women; average age, 71.3 years in 2014) who attended local health checkups in 2014 and 2020. Height, body weight, body mass index, blood pressure, grip strength, functional reach, and bone mineral density were measured. The prevalence, location, number of ossified contiguous vertebrae, and spinopelvic parameters were estimated using whole-spine standing radiographs. For health-related quality of life assessment, the Oswestry disability index and EuroQuol-5D were obtained. We performed a 1:1 case-control study with age and sex-matched patients with and without diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and analyzed progression over a 6-year period.
In 2014, 39 (15.3%) of 255 patients were diagnosed with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (24 males and 15 females), which occurred more frequently in the elderly and males. In 2020, 12 (4.3%) patients were newly diagnosed with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, and 28 (71.7%) of 39 patients diagnosed in 2014 showed varying degrees of progression. Compared with age- and sex-matched patients without diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, patients with the condition had higher body mass index and lumbar bone mineral density, larger sagittal vertical axis, and greater T1-pelvic angle. Changes in physical function and spinal-pelvic parameters during the 6-year period did not differ between the groups.
Over a 6-year period, the prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis increased by 4.3%, and it progressed in 71.7% of patients. However, it had little effect on longitudinal physical function, health-related quality of life, and spinopelvic parameters in older adults.
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Published online: January 18, 2023
Accepted: December 22, 2022
Received in revised form: December 20, 2022
Received: October 7, 2022
Publication stageIn Press Corrected Proof
© 2023 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.