INTRODUCTION
• General
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Manuscript Submission via Editorial Manager
• Submission declaration
• Use of inclusive language
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
PREPARATION
• Conflict of Interest Disclosure and Copyright Transfer Agreement
• Instructions for Manuscript Preparation
• Double anonymized submission
• Title Page
• Main Document
• Artwork
• Special Features
• Editorial Policies
• Peer-Review Process
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
• Article in press
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES




General

The Journal of Orthopaedic Science is the official peer-reviewed journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association. The journal publishes the latest researches and topical debates in all fields of clinical and experimental orthopaedics, including musculoskeletal medicine, sports medicine, locomotive syndrome, trauma, paediatrics, oncology and biomaterials, as well as basic researches.

The journal accepts articles dealing with the entire human body, including spine, upper extremities and lower extremities. Article types accepted include original articles, review articles, rapid short communications, and letters to the editor.

The journal welcomes articles from all sources worldwide.




Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Manuscript Submission via Editorial Manager

Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing time and shortens overall publication time. Please go directly to the site http://www.editorialmanager.com/orth and upload all your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen. Please use the Help option to see the most recently updated system requirements. An outline of the submission process is described in the final section of these instructions.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.




Conflict of Interest Disclosure and Copyright Transfer Agreement

The corresponding author, on behalf of all authors, should be aware of the requirements of completing a 'Conflict of Interest Disclosure and Copyright Transfer Agreement' form. (This form can be downloaded). The form must be signed by the corresponding author. When submitting a paper, the author(s) must make a full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as prior or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper to help the editor decide how to deal with the matter. A scanned file (PDF, TIFF, or JPEG) of these forms may be uploaded as a file at the time of online submission. Alternatively, they may also be sent to the Editorial Office by fax, postal mail, or e-mail at the same time you submit your manuscripts via Editorial Manager.
Editorial Office:
Kazuhisa Takahashi, MD, PhD, Editor-in-Chief,
Journal of Orthopaedic Science Editorial Office,
Kyorinsha Co., Ltd.,
3-46-10 Nishigahara, Kita-ku,
Tokyo 114-0024, Japan
Phone +81-3-3910-4311 Fax +81-3-3949-0230
e-mail: [email protected]
IMPORTANT: Upon receipt of the Copyright Agreement and Submission Letter, manuscripts are officially recognized as submissions.

Instructions for Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English should seek the assistance of a colleague who is a native English speaker and familiar with the field of the work. Authors are advised to follow the recommendations in the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication" proposed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org).
Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced (not 1.5) with wide margins on A4 paper. The manuscript parts should be in the following order, with each section beginning on a new page: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure captions, and figures. Number all pages in the bottom right corner beginning with the title page.
For reports on randomized control studies, authors should refer to the CONSORT statement (http://www.consort-statement.org).


Double anonymized submission

Because this journal follows a double-anonymized review policy, author information should not be included in the main document. Authors should submit the title page, the main document, and the acknowledgments separately. In order to allow a completely anonymized peer review, the Journal of Orthopaedic Science requests that authors not include in the abstract or text the name or initials of the authors or the institution at which the study was performed. Refer to your own published work in the third person. Use "In the previous work of Author name et al. [2]", not "In our previous work [2]."

Title Page

The title should be concise but sufficiently informative to make electronic retrieval of the manuscript both effective and specific. Include important information such as the study design, i.e., clinical or basic, and in particular indicate if the study is a randomized control trial. The page should contain the article title, the full names of the authors including only major qualification such as M.D. or Ph.D., and the complete postal address of the department and institution where the work was done. Designate one author as a correspondent and supply his or her complete postal address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address.

Main Document

The main document should be organized as follows: abstract, keywords, text, ethical statement, conflict of interest, references, and figure captions.

Abstract

The abstract should be structured and contain no more than 300 words. Please bear in mind that the abstract and the title form the substantively informative portion of the article for purposes of indexing on electronic databases. The structured abstract should consist of four paragraphs: Background (including a clear description of the primary interest, purpose and context of the research), Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The abstract should be typed on a separate page, and should not include abbreviations, footnotes, or references.

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide 2 - 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Text

The length of the text should not exceed 3,000 words (word count does not include abstract, references, and figure captions). The number of figures and tables together should not exceed 20. The text of the article is usually, but not necessarily, divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Long articles may need section subheadings to clarify their content. Do not repeat in the text all data that appear in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. A conclusion may be included in the summary paragraph of the Discussion only if it is not redundant.

Ethics

It is the responsibility of the authors to assure that all clinical investigations detailed in manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Orthopaedic Science are conducted in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Any studies involving human subjects must clearly indicate that informed consent has been obtained from all patients and relevant persons (such as the parent or legal guardian) for publication, including any necessary photographs. An example of such a statement would be "The patients and/or their families were informed that data from the research would be submitted for publication, and gave their consent." Do not use patients' names, initials, institutional ID numbers, or other identifying information. Articles, including their study design, originating from a particular institution are assumed to be submitted with the approval of the requisite authority on ethical issues. Articles describing research involving human subjects must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section indicating that approval was given by the institutional review board (IRB) and that informed consent was obtained from each patient or candidate. Manuscripts reporting animal experiments must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section indicating that approval was obtained from the institutional review board and that animal care complied with the guidelines of the authors' institution or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals. If the submitted manuscript describes original nucleotide sequence data, these data should be submitted to GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank) by the authors, and the accession number should be included in the submitted manuscript.

Statistics

Statistical methods should be described with sufficient detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals).

References

Authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy and completeness of the references listing all authors when 6 or fewer; when 7 or more, list only first 6 and add "et al". The number of references should not exceed 30. The style of the references should follow the MEDLINE/PubMed Journal Article Citation Format found at the National Center for Bibliography Information [NCBI] Web site (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/policy/cit_format.html), where specific reference citations can be searched for.
If a non-English-language reference is listed, the original language should be indicated, as shown in the following sample:

Journal article not in English
Otani T, Hayashi S, Ueno Y, Hayashi H, Kato T, Tamegai H, Fujii K. Long-term radiographic evaluation of muscle release operation for arthritis of the hip: comparison study between the results of muscle release and the natural history of osteoarthritis. Rinshou Seikeigeka (Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery) 2004;39:921?6 (in Japanese).

The list of references should be numbered according to the sequence of citation in the text. References should be cited in the text by numbers in squire brackets. Abbreviations of journal names must conform to those used in MEDLINE/PubMed.
Avoid using abstracts as references. In the references, do not list personal communications and unpublished material (including oral and poster presentations and manuscripts not yet accepted for publication). If critical to the manuscript's message, written personal communications and other unpublished material may be cited in the text and referenced in parentheses. Include with the submitted manuscript signed verification from the originator of any personal communication.

Figure captions

Figure captions (not exceeding 40 words per caption) should be typed double-spaced on a separate page. Do not use a separate page for each caption. All abbreviations should be defined at first use, even if already defined in the text. All characters and symbols appearing in the figure should also be defined.

Conflict-of-Interest Policy

All authors are expected to disclose any commercial affiliations as well as consultancies, stock ownership, or patent-licensing arrangements that could be considered to pose a conflict of interest regarding the submitted article. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information can be found at: https://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing. Please download ICMJE Conflict of Interest Statement from the online manuscript submission system, Editorial Manager, and upload the completed forms during online submission. The signature of all authors is required.

Tables

Tables should be given a brief, informative title and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Type each table double-spaced on a separate page. Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables. Tables must be no larger than a single sheet of A4 paper. The table number and title should appear above the table, and the definition of all abbreviations, levels of statistical significance, and additional information should appear below the table.

Figures

Figures should be cited consecutively in the text. Include an internal scale in any micrographs or provide the magnification in the caption. Professionally produced arrows should be used to highlight the photographs message and the illustration should be of a professional standard. If photographs of persons are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or the subject's or guardian's written permission to use the photograph must accompany the manuscript. When submitting a figure that has appeared elsewhere, give full information about previous publication and the credits to be included, and submit the written permission of the author and the publisher. The previously published source should also be included in the list of references.

Artwork

Electronic artwork

Authors should give considerable care in preparing figures. Resolution and quality of submitted images is the responsibility of the author; as a routine, the Journal does not provide figure enhancement services.
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please note:
• Do not supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Do not supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Do not submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content;
• Do not submit images/photographs by PowerPoint (PPT) files.
For detailed instructions on preparing digital art for submission or production, visit https://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-schemas/artwork-and-media-instructions

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Special Features

Invited Articles

Invited articles such as Editorials, Invited Reviews, and Instructional Lectures should be submitted through Editorial Manager. The submission process is described below. Details of manuscript preparation are described in the letter of invitation sent by the Editor-in-Chief.

Rapid Short Communications

Concise articles of a very notable and original nature may be submitted as Rapid Short Communications. The length of the text, acknowledgments, and references should not exceed 1,500 words. An abstract is not required. One figure and/or a table may be included in this type of article. The criterion for acceptance is rigid; if extensive revision is required, the submission will lose its rapid communication status.

Review Articles

These are commissioned, authors are invited to contribute review article by the editor.

Letters to the Editor

Letters to the Editor on published articles of sufficient interest will be considered for publication. Letters should be typed double-spaced and limited to 1000 words. A copy of the letter will be sent to the previous articles author(s) to invite a response.

Editorial Policies

Statements and opinions expressed in articles and communications are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher. The editor and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material.

Peer-Review Process

The journal uses a double-anonymized peer-review system, meaning that the authors and reviewers have been anonymized each other. At initial submission, a manuscript is reviewed by editorial staff for compliance with journal style and to make sure the submission is clear and legible for reviewers and editors. Once the editorial staff have checked in the paper, it is assigned to the Editor-in-Chief, who will assign it to an Associate Editor. The Associate Editor then determines if it should be sent for peer review or if it is not of sufficient priority for the journal. All reviewers and editors are asked to report any potential conflicts of interest, and when those exist the manuscript is reassigned to a different editor or reviewer. In principle a manuscript is reviewed by two expert consultants. Once reviews have been completed, the submission is reviewed by the associate editor and the Editor-in-Chief, and the editorial decision is notified to the corresponding author by the editorial staff.
Re-review may be required after revision if, in the judgement of the Editor-in-Chief/the Associate Editor, sufficient modification of the manuscript or data justifies another review cycle or one (or more) of the reviewers requested to see the revision. The Editor-in-Chief has final authority on all editorial decisions unless the editor has been recused, e.g., if the editor is an author, in which case the review process is overseen and the decision made by a designated Associate Editor.

Queries

For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center.




Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Article in press

The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.




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